The process initiated for the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (CNUMAD), was the same for the Earth Summit which took place in Rio de Janeiro in June of 1992. The process depends on the obligation and participation, not only from governments but from all of the players from civil society and from the social and political agreements that resulted from the summit, especially Program 21. The formula tion, approval and subscription of various documents during and following the Summit, have been confronted by various restrictions for its adaptation and implementation in different social, economic and environmental contexts.
To evaluate the outcome of the Conference, the advances in the implementation of the agreements are differentiated and make it necessary to evaluate the grade of responsi bility of the nations that have assumed these obligations and have worked for the con version in politics and in activities.
With the purpose of evaluating the progress since the CNUMAD and to recommend ac tions for sustainable development in the coming years, the Earth Council along with other institutions have organized <Rio + 5> as a world-wide process that will translate the obligations from 1992 into concrete actions.
Part of the process was to organize and implement regional meetings throughout the world, to define the status of the national and regional processes of sustainable devel opment. The results and suggestions from these meetings will be utilized at the upcom ing Forum <Rio + 5> that will take place in March of 1997. This will lead to the develop ment of recommendations at the local, national and global levels as well as the mobiliza tion of the agreements from the Rio Summit of 1992.
The Earth Council, the Bolivian Sustainable Development Council and the Arariwa Asso ciation, called to State sector representatives and civil societies from the countries in volved with the Cartagena Agreement, to analyze the process and the progresses made in each country over the last five years. Additionally, to gather opinions and to develop proposals and suggest actions necessary to guide the agreements and obligations as sumed at the Earth Summit. The Andean Sub-Regional Consultation must be understood as part of the global process, <Rio + 5>, and must culminate into one vision at a world-wide level.
Five years is ample time for reflection and to formulate proposals on the significance of sustainable development for each one of the societies. It is now possible to define the priorities to be worked into Program 21 and other Earth Summit conventions, based on the realities, and to further defined aspects, such as the economics and the links that must be established between social, political, economical and ecological factors in the framework of the sub-region.
The realization of this Seminar, framed in the global process of the evaluation of agree ments from the Earth Summit in Rio of 1992, has permitted us to analyze and debate the themes. It has also allowed us to strengthen the capacity that has contributed to the advancement of the proposal for sustainable development in our region, and the com mitted participation and responsibility of the diverse players from civil society.
II. Objectives of the Consultation
To evaluate the agreements from the Earth Summit of 1992 and the advances in the implementation, from the participating countries of the Cartagena Agreement, the sub-regional institutions committed to the promotion of sustainable development.
Francisco Mata, Executive Sub-director of the Earth Council, summarized the process of Rio + 5. The process, driven by the Earth Council , consists of identifing restrictions and to proposing concrete actions for the implementation of the agreements from Rio. The process involves not only government but players from the civil society and the pro duction sectors, and realize the official balance that the United Nations will look to at their next General Assembly in June of 1997. Rio + 5 responds to the Mission of the Council consistent with the operations of Agenda 21 at the same time strengthening the civil society and their relations with governments.
The Andean Sub-Regional Consultation represents the 10a. Regional Consultation in the process Rio + 5 and completes the 3 Regional Consultations in Latin America. These Regional Consultations have their basis in the relations between the civil society and the State and they compliment the processes of the National Consultations. To date, they have realized a global level totaling 55 National Consultations. In the Andean Region, only Bolivia has completed it’s National Consultation. Columbia is in the pro cess of completing their National Consultation and Ecuador and Peru are planning to complete theirs’ before the end of the month. These documents will play a principal role in the development of a document at the regional level of Latin America. They will be presented at the Forum, Rio + 5, between the 13th and 19th of March in Rio de Janeiro, jointly with a series of special studies of critical themes identified for the Earth Council.
Lorena San Roman, Coordinator for the Earth Council of Latin America and the Caribbean, stressed that the mission of the Earth Council is to operationalize Agenda 21 and at the same time strengthen the civil society. The experiences of the National Sustainable Development Council (CNDS) much like the Bolivians, are experiences that must be analyzed carefully in order to be replicated effectively. San Roman reviewed the evolution of the regional and global politics in relation to the implementation of a strategy of sustainable development. Information taken from the Brundtland Commission (1983-1987) defines the players, the conditions, and the critical objectives of sustainable development. With this information important steps have been taken in defining political concepts and agendas in reaching sustainability. San Roman emphasized various documents and agreements such as; Nuestra Propia Agenda (1990), el Programa 21 (1992), los Tratados Alternativos of the ONG’s (1992), la Alianza Centroamericana para el Desarrollo Sostenible(1994), la Cumbre de las Americas (1994), which brings us to the recent Declaracion of Santa Cruz (1996) a product of the Hemispheric Summit on Sustainable Development. Finally, San Roman summarized the distinct phases of the Rio + 5 process, beginning with preparation and consultations, the realization of the Forum in Rio de Janeiro, up to the recommendations to be made to the ONU in their official evaluation process to the middle of this year.
The National Consultations
The second part of the Workshop was dedicated to the presentation of the national development consultation experiences in the regions of Columbia and Bolivia. Maria Nella Curi, Sub-secretary of the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Environmental Promotion of Bolivia, reviewed the process of the Bolivian Consultation which resulted in the paper for the Bolivian Sustainable Development Council (CBDS). The Consultation was designed by the government but the final document was a response from the work of all players from the society. “The final document isn’t from the government of Bolivia, it is from Bolivia”, said Curi. Before presenting this document, Curi emphasized that the sustainable development is understood in Bolivia as the core of planning and development. As part of this process a new institutional standard and normative was created and institutionalized to encourage civic participation.
This has allowed for a new culture of civil-state dialogue. Bibiana Vargas, Advisor for the Ministry of the Environment of Columbia, summarized the progress of their national consultation. Using the Constitution of 1991 they searched for a definition and mode of operating the concept of sustainable development which agreed with the reality in Columbia. Vargas gave a review of the evolution of enviornmental politics in Columbia from the Code of Natural Resources of 1974 until the creation of the Ministry of the Environment including Law 99 of 1993 and the aprobation of the Environmental National Plan in 1994. Vargas emphasized that the evaluation is not only based on the agreements but also on the level of political integration. For them it has constituted in an ad-hoc group of 14 persons who since 1995 have been working diligently on the culmination of the agreements of Agenda 21 in Colombia. Vargas concluded by discussing the significance of the sustainable management in our countries with a long term vision, affirming that, there is a shortage of resources characteristic in the region, the need to eradicate poverty and at the same time respect the sovereignty of the natural resources and strengthen the instances of cooperation within the regional block.
The first day of the Workshop concluded with two round table discussions on the advances in sub-regional politics for sustainable development, and the limitations and possibilities to make advances in sustainability in the region. With respect to the advance in the design and implementation of politics, Carlos Chirinos, representative of the Peruvian Society of Environmental Rights, summarized the situation in Peru. Chirinos made the point that, from the 1991 Standard Law for the Growth of the Private Investment (Legislative Decree No. 757), a series of structural reforms to liberalize and deregularize the economy were initiated in Peru. The markets, the competitions and the private initiatives were re-evaluated, as support of an efficient assignment of resources. The reforms look to consolidate the State and promote initiatives that permit civic participation in public negotiation. According to Chirinos this intentional weakening ofthe power of the state incidence in the political and economic system in Peru, has determined that environmental responsibility does not come from demands and public mandates, but is a self tax by the civil society in a network of co-ordination with the production sectors. It is in this context that the National Council of the Environment (CONAM) was created and has prioritized a strategy of organization and coordination rather than political control and environmental vigilance. Chirinos asked that this strategy from CONAM play a part in environmental efforts in Peru, and affirmed that the existing political passivity will have a high price for civil society. Subsequently he presented the sector advances reached since the Code of the Environment in 1990, pending an analysis of the environmental legislation (such as the laws on natural resources), the mechanisms of financing (the case of the Pro-FONANPE), and the institutional framework which measures whether it facilitates or limits the civic participation. Maria Nella Curi, in presenting the Bolivian case, emphasized the basic elements outlined in “structural change” in the Bolivian development model.
Taken from an analysis of the process in four areas (economic, social, environmental, and political) she summarized the process of institutional reform (including a constitutional reform), administrative decentralization, strengthening of local governments, the law of Popular Participation, such as the advances in the legislation of the management of sustainable natural resources and environmental protection. Curi concluded that the construction of the model of sustainable development is a long term process, and in Bolivia it has been committed to politically. Finally, Daniel Peas, representative of the Ministry of Ethnic Culture of Ecuador, summarized the politics and environmental legislation in his country, resulting in the paper attributed to the recently created Ministry of the Environment.
Before concluding the round table discussion, the Organizing Committee invited Mr. Pablo Kaplun, General Coordinator for the ONG “Nucleo de Geografia Viva” of Venezuela, the only participant from his Country in the Workshop, to present his perception about the advances in the environmental efforts in his country. Kaplun emphasized that the environment has been designated as a “critical situation” in Venezuela as a result of the opening of the petroleum industry and the new boom in gold mining. Considering that Venezuela is a country leading in environmental, political and legislation matters (first country in Latin America to announce publicly a Law of the Environment and a specialized Ministry), Kaplun affirmed that Venezuela has withdrawn in the last years. There is a lack of a tradition of participation in the country as well as a disorganized institution. Kaplin finished by making a request to the Workshop to call tothe attention of Venezuela their non public participation in the Workshop, and invoking the prompt constitution of the National Sustainable Development Council.
The Organization of Sustainable Development
On the theme of advances in organization within the region, diverse interpretations were presented. Maria Nella Curi began by saying that it is necessary for a “new ethical practice” that is expressed through a new form and culture of dialogue between the government and civil society. This new ethic must respect the diversity and design of institutional mechanisms that encourage civic participation. It is not a concession but a right. Maria Nella Curi emphasize that the paper presented to the National Council of Sustainable Development, is a political opening for the organization of sustainability. Marcela Lopez de Ruiz, Director of Special Matters of the Ministry of External Relations for Peru, emphasized the necessity of co-ordination between the Andean Countries to strengthen our political capacity for negotiation in the industrialized countries with respect to the fulfillment of the Earth Summit agreements. Remember the process lived previous to the Declaration of Santa Cruz in 1996. In this sense he suggested the possibility of arriving at the General Assembly of the ONU with a regional proposal of negotiation as GRULAC (Group of Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean). He concluded his presentation by proposing that a Work Group be formed in Peru to strengthen the proposal from the country before the ONU, and reminded the Workshop that bi-national initiatives are priorities of the GEF.
Ivonne Saenz, Representative of the Ministry of the Environment for Ecuador, reminded us that the Ministry only has four months of institutional life. They have committed to the ONG’s and the private sector in Ecuador to institutionalize the environmental management. To determine that they are committed to the realization of the National Council, he presented a proposal that was designated “local participative planning” in the framework of a “Plan of Local Sustainable Development”. Saenz concluded his presentation with a plan of activities from the Ministry for 1997. Bibiana Vargas, Advisor to the Ministry of the Environment for Columbia, presented some ideas about international negotiations with respect to environmental politics. For Columbia this has been represented largely by the “process of apprenticeship” where physical, technical, human and institutional infrastructure is needed to internalize the agreements signed in the international community. This process is large and requires the strength of human resources, before financial resources, that reflect the paternalism of the multilateral organizations. Subsequently Vargas reflected with regard to the relationship between state, civil society and the production sector at a global level, questioning the civicparticipation as not being a “two sided process” at the level of the multi-lateral organisms. Finally he pointed out some examples of the outcome of regional levels of responsibilities; such as, the Decision 391 from the Cartagena Agreement that regulates the regime of access to genetic resources in the region, as well as the Declaration of Tarapoto (1995) that established the principles and indicators of sustainability for the management of the tropical forests of the Amazon. The presentation concluded with a short reflection on the process of violence and war in the Magdalena Medium, where ECOFONDO fighting for civic participation has overcome one of the biggest obstacles that confronts the new model of sustainable development.
Second Part: Results of the Consultation
IV. Critical Priorities (Work Groups)
The second day of the Workshop started with a complete session where the visions on the critical problems were recognized, in the implementation of a strategy of sustainable development in the Andean Region. Through this exercise a thematic division of the critical problems to be worked on by the work groups was arrived at.
The critical points that were prioritized by the participants who encounter poverty, were; the model of prevailing development, and institutional weakness. The participants were emphatic to point out that to implement a program of sustainable development involving the eradication of poverty, but at the same time, poverty converts to one of the conditional factors most important for the strategy of development in the region. In some cases the associated proposals have been confused in the “development model” that generates and creates poverty, and for many, the incompatibility with a model of alternative development based on a change of values makes the sustainability of development.
These two themes, and the interrelation between poverty and development, and the potential incompatibility of the examples of development, are clearly the critical points that received the most concentration. Another thematic area that received a lot of attention was the theme of the institutional framework and the weakness of that framework in carrying out the standard or, its’ defect, in designing the new institutional mechanism that outlines administrative decentralization, sustainable management of natural resources and civic participation.
In the second group of critical points problems associated directly to the management of natural resources and respect for the ethnic-cultural diversity were discussed. They included; the amazonian forests, the interrelation between rights of property and sustainable management of resources, the problems of the rights of intellectual property, the management of natural areas protected by the state, the appropriate technologies and the problems associated with commercialization and alternative markets. With regard to the rights of indigenous peoples the following points were made; the incapacity of the governments to carry out the international agreements and obligations, i.e. (the Biological Diversity Agreement and the Agreement 169 of the OIT), and the problems of recognition and respect of their territories. In general it was claimed that a major participation of the indigenous society in the processes of decision making in the countries of the region is needed.
Finally, the urban environmental management and the role of the local governments, and the problems associated with the lack of a strategy of information, education and training in sustainable development, were the other two critical points that were considered and analyzed by the work groups.
There were some themes that remained formulated in the plenary but that were considered pertinent enough to be introduced into some of the seven critical points that were reviewed. They included the conditions of social and political violence dominating in some countries of the region (in particular Colombia and Peru), the necessary regional integration for international negotiations, and the central theme that emanated from the plenary, what is civic participation? It was considered that these points must be incorporated in the core of the discussions of the work groups.
A plan of the seven thematic areas identified as the critical problems that affect the successful implementation of a program of sustainable development in the countries of the Andean region, was presented. Each one of them were analyzed and discussed in work groups. One person in each group volunteered to take notes.
I.-Management of Resources and Bio-diversity
(forests, earth, water, energy, genetic resources, hydro-biology)
V. Consultations of the Workgroups
A summary of the work group reports was presented.
Management of Resources and Bio-Diversity
I. Achievements and Advances
I Achievements and Advances
Agenda 21 establishes that the struggle against poverty includes; the improvement of the population revenue, the conservation and the national use of the RR.NN., the granting of major responsibilities to the population, and access to social services, etc.
This perspective establishes for us the necessity to design politics to satisfy the fundamental needs of the population (nourishment, revenue, accommodation, education, health, access to credit, access to the labor market, access to decision making, the right to choose and to be chosen), encouragement of social participation and the respect of the ethnic and gender differences, without deteriorating the environment.
Our countries with the exception of Bolivia, still maintain social public politics of an assistential character, unlinked to environmental politics, the management of the RR.NN and to economic knowledge.
The results of this is that it maintains poverty. Moreover, the governments have adopted restrictive economic measuring that increases poverty and the unequal distribution of resources.
However, there are local experiences of some ONGs that establish integral alternatives in their programs / political development. But these are not accepted by governments.
As a balance to this, they can decide that they have fulfilled the agreements of Rio 92 and that the international agreements do not translate into politics of the State, but as politics which can be thrown out for the next government.
The principles and politics of the Bolivian experience gives us hope to be able to surpass this situation. For many, we must extract all of the positive experiences and promote them and adapt them to the rest of the countries in the Andean region.
II. Best practices / successful experiences The work of some local ONGs that deal with the theme of poverty to traverse from their politics / programs whose components orient, for example:
The discussion established the essential elements put into action in the guide for regional consultations. These points do not sufficiently analyze the balanced on the state of sustainable development in the Andean sub-region, and the alternatives to sustainable negotiations management in our countries.
These general elements of the discussion were given:
1. The group agreed that to make an objective and constructive analysis of the development model used in the Andean sub-region countries, it is necessary to consider the artists of the development process that they have focused on the governments of the Andean sub-region. As a common denominator in our countries we encounter sustainable economic growth, equality in the social benefits of economic growth, as in political willpower - which is not in all cases materialized - to generate participation and democratic mechanisms that result in a better and more integrated outline of governing. These are the keystone elements under which modern development projects of the States and economies are driven today.
On the other side, the governments of the region are immersed today in the problems derived from the opening of their markets, and the re-definition of the role that it plays in the State, like the liberalization of their markets. It appears that there is a duality between the development model of the characteristics previously mentioned and sustainable development. Is it possible to compatibilize the management?
2. To establish in absolute terms the concepts of Sustainable Development or the prevailing Model of Development - Neo-liberal - and to define and evaluate the management of the State, the civil and the small business sectors. The special communities and the local community do not allow for an objective recount of the activities undertaken for the State in the last years.
2.1 The eradication of poverty, the economic politics, the social, cultural, health, education, accommodation considerations are preoccupations that have been a space for action of the States and Governments for more than 50 years.
2.2 It is fitting to ask at this point, what is it that has been introduced to the management of the States universalization of the concept of Sustainable Development?
3. The demand of Sustainable Development to be a holistic and integral concept understands various elements that call to action. They are:
Conservation, administration and rational use
of the non renewable natural resources.
- Democratization of the decision structures from the executive level to the local level.
- Decentralization of management (economic, political, introduction of new players).
In more or less measuring, the States of the region that have introduced these variables to the development model predominant in each one of the countries. The differences reside principally in the players that drive and promote the introduction of these variables in the scheme of development and political willpower - translated in legal regulations - that have been modified from the traditional scheme of development.
Elements for the Construction of an Alternative Development Model
Our governments - recognizing it or not - debate today between the advance of the international discussions on the environment and development. There is no doubt that these debates generate pressure and influence the actions of the state - independently of how this is assumed, - on the other hand the force of the local communities and the organized civil society set in motion elements that exact responses on the part of the government.
Furthermore, it is appropriate to point out that to ensure that civil society participates in the decisions on development management, they must follow the principles, objectives and actions undertaken by the governments of the region, and incorporate the elements that define sustainable development.
Construct development from bottom to top / recognition of locals / infrastructure for the encouragement of the micro-business as an instance of national products.
- The articulation of politics and strategies is essential for development. In this sense, it is necessary to underline the necessity of: 1. planning 2. integration 3. coordination
Who Finances Sustainable Development?
In the same manner as Sustainable Development seems to redefine the public function at the national level, it also redefines international levels of financial responsibility and cooperation. It consists of the descent official development assistance, this decline is perceived as something positive. The fact is that they must assume the obligations accepted in Rio and in other multilateral instances.
At the national level it is necessary to generate the proper resources. The mechanisms of decentralization have been reverted, in some cases, large percentages of the national budget are taken for decisions that must be financed. The businesses, academics, private sector, ONG’s, communities and the State must be called to consider the investment in the sustainable development as a dynamic and effective process. In this sense, also set in motion the participation and the democratization of decision making.
The investment in sustainable development, is not only in business and capital. The major wealth of the Andean region resides in its’ human, ecological and cultural diversity. This must be encouraged by the state for, the ONG’s, the communities, the public and private sectors, and others.
The regional integration must deal with the real problems, the problems that are of bi-lateral or multi-lateral character and that have a direct incidence on what the countries have in common, and that which our countries are in capable of to setting in motion. Shared ecosystems.
Institutional and Normative Frame
It is fundamental the existence of political willpower breaks away from the planning of integral national politics that serve the outline for:
* The decentralization as a keystone element to put into practice the sustainability at the local level.
* The institutionalization that permits the practice of sustainability. This institutionalization has two levels:
1. Instances that assume the permanent responsibility for sustainability: central, regional, local, and common instances.
2. The attitude to assume responsibility for sustainable development: all social, private and public players.
It is important to relate to a legal framework that allows institutional sustainability, to define competitions and responsibilities and transfers resources.
All this must be understood in the process.
1.. Standards (institutionalization of the management of sustainable development)
Achievements and Advances
* All of the countries from the region have advanced in standards and environmental legislation.
* The Region has many instances of government responsibility in bringing forward politics and programs orientated to sustainable development:
* The region guides this process in the direction of democratization of the State to traverse from a decentralized political and fiscal administration.
* They have created national mechanisms for the execution of the themes of biological diversity, climatic changes, forests, desertification.
* Incorporation of environmental education and sustainable development in the formal and informal education system.
2.. Institutional Training to Fulfill the Standard
* If there are institutions responsible for the theme, there exist as yet, institutional weakness in applying the standards and fulfilling the laws translated in a weak political and in limited human resources and finances. It must relate to trained human resources with sufficient financial resources and a guarantee of the institutional development at central, regional and local levels.
4.. Mechanisms of Civic Participation and Local Management
Achievements and Advances
- Instrumentalization of the sustainability of local development
- Instrumentalization of the decentralization from the local to the community level.
- Community access to politics and resources.
- Municipalization of the country to traverse form the creation of 311 autonomous municipalities, for example; the level of responsibility for planning of local development.
- Reassignment of economic resources based on the number of inhabitants.
- Redistribution of the political power, decentralization of decision making.
- Legitimization of the political power of base original organizations and to traverse from the granting of personal justice.
- Promotion of equality of gender in the formation of local power, in the election of representatives and in the decision making process on participation planning.
- Institutionalization of the process of decentralization at an administrative, fiscal and political level.
- Colombian political constitution of 1991 as a reference for the constitutional reform in other countries, especially on the theme of the environment.
- Realization of the coordinated management between Peru and Bolivia.
- Management of an ecosystem shared by two countries.
Values and Principles
Obstacles for the Management of Local Development
5.. Regional Integration / International Negotiations
Recommendations for Local, Regional and Global Governance
Information - Education - Communication
Organization of the information: Frameworks
Venezuela: - “Expedition” TV Program, the series was sold by offering the quality of the country, taking advantage of the territorial space. Simple language, to offer information in the same town, taking the part of culture.
Bolivia: - Education reform. Initiated two years ago, integrated the formation of sustainable development. Created an academic network tied to the ONG’s: Bio-diversity and Protected Areas “Bolivia Urgent” TV program, it explains varies eco-systems. Programs, with emphasis on informal education and support from publications.
Peru: - Formal education, Agrian University and the Federico Villareal University. Professorships in relation to sustainable development. Since 1993, work on the Peruvian Environmental Network.
Cusco: - Local level: Central education, creation of 60 Ecological Clubs dispersed throughout the entire Region. They do various activities that are programmed annually (P.E. Convention, Celebration of Environment Day, Companions in cleaning, flower bed competition, etc.) Meeting of between 12-14 Colleges for the reforestation of the bordering mountains.
Bolivia: - To traverse from the Bolivian Forum, works of cooperation with campesina organizations, indigenous, trade unions, special areas, and the Bolivian east. Information is brought to the urban zone, but lacks at the rural level. Programs of training with seminars in 8 provinces of IS existing (East, Baja Zone, Amazonian Territory). Three large geographic zoos. Created an opportunity for the formation of different communities with the same language.
Peru: - Experience Panamericana TV (Cusco). Presentation of favorite zones initiated with P.N. Manu. Grand welcome. The Banks have finally collaborated to support the series.
Venezuela: - Little influence from Rio 92 in the country. There was nothing new planned, of course in the interior of the country, two years ago come here fighting the same problems, but with different names. But there are small businesses that are making steps to move towards sustainable development.
Ecuador: - In the framework of the Congress of the Environment II. Appears the Agenda of Environmental communication. This document is used as a reference for the education sector. Born from a network of communication with 20 institutions that offer a post grad in management environmental inter-institutional. An academic achievement.
Peru: - Training in Education initiated with the Program of Primary Ecological Education. 27 Institutions intend to replicate.
Ecuador: - Autonomous indigenous education. There is an area of ecological education in the curriculum: initial, primary, secondary. Aspects of sustainable development, coordination for training with government institutions.
Colombia: - As well with the mediums of communication, they have realized projects that spread the natural wealth of the country, and programs of folklore and customs that spread and exchange the cultural diversity. There are local government and institution publications that favor environmental education.
Peru: - Pukllasunchis
Bolivia: - Decentralization and participation. Break the old scheme. Difficulties: multi-cultural and multi-lingual. Consider it in the new laws. Responsibility of health and education at a local level, put the resources are not sufficient. The management of these limited resources is complex and lacks the local prioritization.
Necessary to train, it has politicized, and there are difficulties in the implementation. There is no guide, in spite of being participative. But there is a void in the distribution of decisions. The syndical moment has faded away. Officalizing. To favor a long term situation for the citizens to have a foot to stand on. But the actuality is strong and difficult.
Venezuela: - Clear politics do not exist with regard to the mediums of communication, alienation, propaganda, and packaging. Scoff and bind at participation. There is a large interest and intentions to blockade the ecological and participation formations.
Necessary to search for mechanisms to avoid this monopoly. International influence. Don’t know the training information. Communication that permits the concept of obtaining a consensus and making a strategy of continuation.
Peru: - The code of the environment exists, but not in the same authority that is known. Lack of education. There is no application, because they are not known, but they are aware of the process, the information on the Law is not sufficient. The National Council of the Environment exists, but do not realize their functions. The ONG’s are making efforts, but lack coordination.
Bolivia: - Who is going to authorize the Law, in a form against the those interested in contravening it? The Law of Agrarian Reform. There is no alternative or alternative projects of development in the case of the coca farmers, promises the government failed to carry out.
Process of conservation is important, emphasize. There is indigenous participation at the national level. There are empty informatives, in the base levels and lack of knowledge in higher levels.
Peru: - There is no integral politics except sectoral. Create a Ministry of Women and Development, it is a super ministry, with other minority groups (ancianos, minusvalidos, etc.)
Ecuador: - Empty of politics and strategy to bring to end a training environment. To make it difficult to break different radical sectors and work at a trans-disciplinarial level.
Peru: - Weakness of education with different elements of society. Rural people do not have hardly any training. The education incline and the poverty is evident, but the lineaments are isolated, they are orientators. Incapacity of reaction.
Ecuador: - Lack of reading, lack of dialogue between the community and the base organizations. But not to cast the blame at another.
Venezuela: - There is no National Sustainable Development Council. Improvise at international meetings. The Ministry of Environment is collapsing.
Colombia: - Much waiting for the National Council of Development. Urgent need for peace. Honorability. The values have changed. The interests of small maintenance for the convenience of disorder.
Bolivia: - Education reform in Bolivia, difficult to apply because the teachers are not trained, need to reverse time, to form, but their salary cannot catch up, and their demands are major.
Critical Matters / Priorities
1. Struggle against poverty. General plan of development.
2. Strengthening of human resources for sustainable development.
3. Integration of the environment and development in the adaptation of decisions.
4. Integral focus of the territorial planning and regulating.
5. Strengthening of the paper of the principal groups.
1. Formal education needs programs at all levels for sustainable development.
2. Utilization of mediums (communication).
3. Translation for the different population groups.
4. Education reform - deficiencies in education politics.
5. Lack of leadership.
6. Foster the investigation on sustainable development.
1. Participative Education
1. Free access to communication mediums (to have an influence on programming).
2. Values and principles (education center).
3. Incorporate ideas of sustainable development and Agenda 21 into basic formal education.
4. Assist the teachers and institutions.
5. Support informal education.
1. Train teachers.
2. Work in the construction of new contents / openings.
1. Support, development, to recover familiar education, proper experiences. The mediums help familiar education.
1. Develop auto-formation, to socialize leaders.
1. To form multipliers (leaders, teachers etc.).
2. To create or to develop use of networks - communication.
Successful Experiences and Lessons Learned
Ecuador: - To reach a consensus between academics, within the framework of the proposal. Post-grad in environmental management. Construction of contents. Recognition and organization of the evidence to advantage collaboration. To work in real scenarios, with specific problems. Cooperation at a national level.
Bolivia: - There are six Universities that offer various post-grads in aspects of sustainable development. Need for co-ordination between institutions.
Peru: - Proposal for a curricular structure. Three instances: urban marginal, urban, and rural. Determine different moral and ethical cores. Projects of scholar development: cyclical focus / systemic. Agro-Ecological school with a projection to integral development of the Cuenca del rio Huatanay (River basin of the Huatanay River), including Alcades.
Venezuela: - “Participation transcending but dieing”
Principles and values of the sustainability that weaves together the successful practices of the sustainability.
Lines transverse keystones:
1. Environmental education
2. Inter-culturality (ethnics / languages)
3. Gender /generalization
4. Participation / cooperation / solidarity
5. Respect for the specifics
6. Integral vision of sustainable development
7. Liberty / justice / dialogue
8. Basic principle: equality
Recommendations for Regional Governance
National / Global Level: -
Indigenous People (Pueblos)
1.. Recognition of Agreements
There is a the lack of knowledge of the agreements from Rio on the part of the base organizations in the countries of South America, with the exception of some countries.
Obtained advances in the application of these agreements. Even with the lack of knowledge of these agreements the Original Communities have developed activities for sustainability.
They have resulted from the efforts of the Indigenous
- Titalization and demarcation of the land.
- Studies of strategies for the autonomous development of Indigenous Communities developed in the Amazonian River Basin for the COICA.
- In the Guarani region, the creation of the Tri-national Park (Bolivia, Argentina and Paraquay) under the administration of the Guaranies.
The governments of the states lack the political willpower to give credit to the signed agreements not applied in the majority of practice of the content of this agreement. These are strangers for the lack of diffusion on the part of the government. The precarity, lack of ethics and compromise with the Original Communities.
Philosophy, ethics, moral Indigenous organization.
That the states and governments fulfill the signed agreements. Presence of indigenous leaders. To endorse the indigenous organizations with economic support.
The auto-determination is a process which is struggling.
The region has had positive results of a focalized nature. In some regions
there is certain autonomy, and the auto-determination is a goal. Examples:
- Creation of the trio-national park of Chaco.
- Recognition of the cultural frontiers that exceed the artificial frontiers: Case, Bolivia. The state of being in force of the language is an example.
The lack of cultural politics from governments. Unawareness of the indigenous problems. Unawareness of the cultural identity.
Approximation of the governments and officials for the greater knowledge of a better understanding of our reality.
3.. Institutional weakness of the States to fulfill the Agreements
Lack of willpower on the part of governments to accept the proposal of the indigenous communities to obtain sustainable and equitative development. In this aspect it has gone backwards.
That the states accept to put into practice the agreements recognizing the needs of the indigenous communities.
4.. Participation in Decision Making
At the local level it is given that in some countries of the region it has resulted in indigenous struggles: Members of Parliament. At the regional and global level invite us but we do not have access to the decision making.
Lack of interest by the government and high functioning officials to listen to the indigenous population. Underprivileged. Lack of dialogue and information.
5.. Intellectual Property
There has not been one achievement. We continue to take away from our knowledge.
It is a struggle for recognition of property rights.
There are no legal instruments or appropriate legal framework that protects and guarantees the intellectual property of the knowledge of the indigenous communities.
To reject the agreements of the World-Wide Organization of commerce that allows the enterprise investigators and other interested groups access without control of the biological and genetic resources, such as, the appropriation and manipulation of indigenous knowledge of these resources, to establish patents and to provoke a new era of depredation and exploitation.
6.. Lack of Capital and Necessary
Training in Economic
Does not exist. The training in economic development is given to the base level organizations but not at a regional level.
The banks and organisms of development and government management criterion do not concur with the economic management of the indigenous populations.
The banks and multi-lateral organisms and the government must make their legal standards suitable to the reality and needs of the indigenous populations.
7.. Reconciliation between the Western Society and the Indigenous World
In the end reconciliation substituting for cooperation and mutual respect.
There have been advances in some sectors of the region.
Dialogue at the same level (Amazonian Cooperation Treaty). Create alliances between European communities (Municipalities) and the indigenous communities of the Amazon. Create the indigenous fund (Inoperative).
Racial discrimination, different economics, political maneuvers on the part of the government.
Change the attitude and moral ethics. The governments must promote the direct participation of the indigenous communities. That convocate to the forums and the international cooperation to analyze the indigenous communities.
Communities: Sustainable and Non-Sustainable Advances
I.. Advances in the stake in practice of the Agreements of Rio and the following World-Wide Conferences of the United Nations
The processes of administrative decentralization initiated in different countries of the Region. Redeeming the following aspects:
a. Strengthening of the municipal governments (Colombia - Bolivia)
b. Major concentration at a local level, in some cases institutionalized and in others incipient, as a result of the process to more active participation and dynamic social players.
c. Promotion of initiatives in the generation of municipal productives: (the communities as core productives)
d. Major awareness on the distinct aspects of territory: economic, social and environmental.
e. Take the awareness of certain social players (opinion leaders), on the need to relate an objective image of the community.
2.. Major awareness
Observe advances in awareness with respect to:
a. The problems of the communities (how many understand the intermediate communities with respect to the problems and experiences of the other communities).
b. The protection of the territory as an integral space that allows development to individuals in the communities.
c. Incorporation of the environmental dimension and its relationship with the quality of ife.
d. Attempts at urban planning and the municipal participative management with other focuses (participative strategies).
II.. Successful Experiences
The Andean Sub-Region has many interesting experiences on management of the communities as a result of local politics.
1. In reference to integral urban management on the part of the community (poor districts): Ilo, Cajamarca, Bogota, Medellin.
2. In reference to the organization of the system of urban public and private transport: Quito.
3. In reference to community participation: The Bolivian Law of Popular Participation.
III.. Obstacles (Restrictions and Limitations)
1. There does not exist in the region a systematic reflection on the theme of the environment - communities.
2. There does not exist national public politics with explicit respect of the development of communities.
3. Observe still a large inconsistency between the juridical and instrumental practice of the decentralization at the local level.
4. Lack of a collective positive vision from the communities that are appropriate for all players and that allow them to profit by their potentialities.
5. Still the communities are not understanding core productives. There is no clear role for the communities as a motor for development.
6. There exists problems in how much effective incorporation of the criterion of sustainability in the management of the communities.
7. Observe a lack of information and communication in all levels and steps of the public apparatus.
8. There exists a very strong dependency with respect to the solution to problems of management and administration of urban services (water, strong refuse). Thinking that a unique efficient option is: forward technology and administration on the part of big business, without considering other forms of administration that are more in harmony with the reality of the municipality and with the physical- geographic characteristics, cultures, etc.
9. The lack of equality in the access and the quality of public urban services, opting for different solutions of agreement to the socio-economic conditions of the users and districts. Ejm. systems from the ground floor consume, latrine systems versus installation of a network of toilets etc.
10. Lack of inter-institutional and inter-governmental coordination to deal with the problems of the communities.
11. Lack of integral public politics oriented to the solution of the problems of the communities and their surroundings.
IV.. PRINCIPLES THAT SERVE AS THE BASIS FOR SUCCESSFUL SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES:
1. The development of the communities must be conceived with the rural surroundings.
2. Social equity, understood as the generation of equal opportunities, offers access to the productive resources, services and infrastructure that are offered to communities.
3. To think of the community as a proposal of life, made positive.
4. To generate citizenship to make communities sustainable, understanding the citizens as the bearer of duties and rights.
5. Recognition of the diversity, encountered in the community and the cohabitation of diverse happiness.
6. Valuation of the community space.
7. Respect for the urban environment and it’s surroundings, and in the end to realize an adequate use of its resources.
It is important:
1. To create an objective positive image of the community, in that to discover the mix and commitment of all social sectors.
2. To strengthen the process of decentralization in the standard legal and institutional frameworks; with the execution of sufficient financial resources to promote regional and local development.
3. To facilitate tender resources and to assist the local governments in allowing them to improve the community and equality of access to services.
4. To incorporate an integral vision in the management of the community, taken from effective public politics that consider the problems of the communities in a global form.
5. To promote the effective manner of the managing process of the urban environment, articulating and incorporating in the planning all the initiatives and collective practices.
6. To understand adequately the specific conditions of successful cases where they can be applied to everyday practices.
Synthesis of the Conclusions from the Work Groups
I Achievements and Advances
The work groups identified some achievements and advances in the last 5 years. These advances are unequal to the interior of the region and require a major interaction between the countries to understand the common lessons and errors. Moreover the fulfillment of the agreements from the Earth Summit, can identify the following achievements at a regional level:
The Andean countries today with a standard that
permits and facilitates the design of national systems of environmental
management, and formal applications where political decisions are made
on the system; they have formalized mechanisms for community participation.
- There exists a major community awareness;
- Concrete experiences of decentralized administration;
Serious advances in the negotiation of the agreements from the Convention of Biological Diversity, and the Convention of the Struggle Against Desertification.
The decision 391 of the Assembly of the Agreement of Cartagena on the Common System of Access to Genetic Resources;
The Declaration of Tarapoto on the Principles and Indicators of Sustainability for the Management’s of Forests elaborated in the Amazonian Cooperation Treaty;
The creation of levels of responsibility of organization for sustainable development, such as, the National Council of Sustainable Development in Bolivia;
The design of Agenda 21 at a local municipal,
departmental and regional level;
- Bi-national experiences of co-management for sustainable development of shared eco-systems, such as the Special Project of Titcaca.
However, the implementation of the sustainable development model given in a political and economic context, common in the Andean countries, is characterized by the open economy, the liberalization of the markets, privatization, and a new role for the governments with a direct minor participation on projects of development. This process is framed in the globalization of the economy and for many, sustainable development in front of the challenge to compatiblize these processes with the objectives of sustainability, the eradication of poverty, the democratization, the sustainable management of natural resources and the integration of the social, environmental, economic and cultural politics. This political process is a long term process of apprenticeship and of the construction of proper models, for this is required to strengthen the mechanisms to share experiences as a whole at a regional level.
II Obstacles and Politics
The principal obstacles identified by the work groups resulted in the following:
The work groups identified a series of successful experiences which are listed in the appendix. The following experiences resulted:
The Bolivian experience of popular participation;
- The BI-national project on the Titicaca river basin;
The Declaration of Tarapoto (principles and indicators for the management of forests);
The Common System of Access to Genetic Resources;
- The urban environmental management in Ilo, Cajamarca, Bogota and Medellin;
The regional networks for participation in the continuation of the Conventions on the Struggle Against Desertification and Climatic Changes; and,
The urban transportation system in Quito;
IV Values and Principles
The proposal principles remain clear that there are three cores of sustainability; conservation, democracy and equality, they suggest various others, such as, a new culture of dialogue, organization and negotiation between equals, such as, the concept of citizenship, the respect of diversity and opposition between dominate shared visions (expressed by the indigenous).
Finally the work groups recommended that we must promote and drive the conformation of the National Council of Sustainable Development (CNDS) as a mechanisms that guarantees the effective community participation and the real practice organization. In the same way they recommended regional integration on the basis of shared eco-systems (bi-national projects), the need to strengthen the regional co-ordination for international negotiations profiting from the comparative advantages of the region many of which refer to the thematic areas (bio-diversity, indigenous rights) and to the successful experiences that the region can show to the entire world.
In summary, the development work throughout the Seminar allowed us to obtain the expected results for the Organizing Committee. Specifically, the following was achieved:
An evaluation at the Andean sub-regional level advanced from the perspective of sustainable development from the Earth Summit, many in the national plan from the sub-region, detailing the achievement principles at a sub-regional level.
1. The identification of the successful political practices and initiatives such as the negative practices at the national and regional levels, that serve as a reference for the other countries who can assimilate the positive aspects and correct or avoid the negative aspects.
The elaboration of lineaments of plans that incorporate the participation of the civil society in the generation and strengthening of national responsibilities for sustainable development and in the implementation of the local and national programs orientated in this perspective.
The preparation of recommendations for the actions of the government on a sub- regional level in functions of sustainable development.
The preparation of recommendations for the action
of the government on a global level.
Relación de asistentes al Seminario-Taller Río+5
|Luis Nelsón Dávila||Central Ecuatoriana de Servicios Agrícolas-CESA Asoc.Latinoameri cana de Organizaciones de Promoción-ALOP||Subdirector
|Inglaterra 532 y Vancouver,
Quito - Ecuador
|593-2 54-6606 /524830
|Manuel Arana||Confederación de Empresarios Privados de Bolivia||Director de Asuntos Económicos||Av.Mariscal Sta Cruz 1392, piso 7, La Paz -Bolivia||591-2 35-6831/35-8366
|César Argumedo Medina||Asociación ANDES -ANDES||Presidente||Urb.Lucrepata E-4, Cusco, Perú||51-84 22-5284 tf|
|Javier Azpur Azpur||Asoc.Arariwa para la promoción técnico cultural andina-ARARIWA||Director||Av.Los Incas, Wanchaq, Cusco - Perú.||51-84 236887 /22-5333
51-84 23-6889 f
|Mario Baudoin Weeks||Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés - IE||Director||Casilla 10077, La Paz - Bolivia.||591-2 79-2582 /79-2416
591-2 79-7511 f
|Juan Daniel Calagua Chávez||Coordinadora de Ciencia y Tecnología en los Andes CCTA||Investigador del Equipo de Cuencas||Tizón y Bueno 481, Jesús María, Lima - Perú||51-1 563-9269 tf|
|Manuel Carlos Rojas||Consorcio Interinstitucional para el Desirously Regional CIPDER||Vicepresidente||Manzana D. Lote 4, Urb. El Ingenio, Cajamarca-Perú||51-44 92-5320 tf|
|Marcos Castellón Pinaya||Ministerio de Desirously Sostenible y Medio Ambiente, Secretaría Nacional de Planificación MDSMASNP||Director de Estrategias||Av.Arce 2147, La Paz - Bolivia||591-39-1805
|Samuel Cáuper Pinedo||Confederación de Nacionaledades Amazónicas del Perú CONAP||Secretario de Economía||Av.Brigadier Pumacahua 974, Jesús María, Lima 11 - Perú||51-1 423-8391
51-1 463-8846 f
|Segundina Cumapa Rengifo||Consejo Mundial de Pueblos Indígenas||Miembro Ejecutivo CMPI Amazonia||Jr.Circunvalación
313, Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali - Perú
|51-64 57-8442 tf|
|María Nella Curi Chacón||Ministerio de Desirously Sostenible y Medio Ambiente||Subsecretaria de Promoción||Av.Arce 2147, La Paz - Bolivia||591-2 31-5983t
|Sandro Chávez Vásquez||Red de Agricultura Ecológica del Perú . RAE-Perú||Director Ejecutivo||Av.Arenales 645, Lima 1 - Perú||51-1 433-5060
|Carlos Chirinos||Sociedad Peruana de Derecho Ambiental SPDA||Investigador||Plaza Arróspide 9, San Isidro, Lima 27-Períú||51-1 422-2278
|Gonzalo Darquea Sevilla||Unión Internacional de Administraciones Locales - IULA||Coordinador para Amúérica Latina||Manuel María Sánchez 267 y 6 de Diciembre, Quito - Ecuador||593-2 46-9365
593-2 43-4205 f
|Charles De Weck, Charles||Centro de Estudios y Promoción del Desirously -DESCO||Responsable Temática Ambiental||León de la Fuente 110 Magdalena, Lima 17 - Perú||51-1 264-1316
|Raúl España Cuéllar||Ministerio de Desirously Sostenible y Medio Ambiente, Seretaría Nacional de Planificación||Consultor||Av.Arce 2147, La Paz - Bolivia||591-2 39-1805
|Darío Espinoza Massit||Chirapaq, Centro de Culturas Indias
|Representante||Horacio Urteaga 534 / 203, Jesús María, Lima 11 -Perú||51-1 423-2757tf|
|Edgar Fuentes Zambrano||Asoc. Iniciativa Comunal de los Andes - INCA||Coordinador de Educación Ambiental||Santa Catalina Ancha 366-B, Cusco - Perú||51-84 231674
51-84 227988 tf
|Manuel Glave Testino||Grupo de Análisis para el Desirously
|Investigador, Area de Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente||Av.del Ejército 1870, San Isidro, Lima 27 - Peréú||51-1 264-1780
|Edgar González Castro||Instituto de Manejo de Agua y Medio Ambiente IMA||Subdirector técnico de proyectos||Av.Pedro Vilcapaza 332, Wanchaq, Cusco - Perú||51-84 22-1971
51-84 22-5037 tf
|Consejo Nacional de Universidades y Escuelas Politécnicas CONUEP||Coordinadora de Asuntos Ambientales y Desirously Sostenible||9 de octubre 624 y Carrión, Quito - Ecuador||593-2 569898
|Guillermo Idrogo Vásquez||Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales INRENA||Director||Calle Diecisiete 355, Urb. El Palomar, San Isidro, Lima 27 -Perú.||51-1 224-3298
|José Luis Jimbiquiti Zhapaco||Federación Shuar||Presidente||Av.Tarqui 809, 2 piso, Quito Ecuador||593-7 740108tf
|Pablo Kaplun||Núcleo de Geografía Viva||Coordinador General||Socorro P.Calero, Edif.Luis Fernando piso 4, apto.25, Caracas 1010 - Venezuela||58-2 5626704 tf|
|Verónica López Aguilar||Liga de Defensa del Medio Ambiente LIDEMA||Coordinadora de Capacitación||Av.Ecuador 2131, La Paz -Bolivia||591-2 353352
|Marcela López de Ruíz||Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores||Directora de Asuntos Especializados||Jirón Lampa 545, Lima 1 Perú||51-1 428-5751
|Juan Diego López Giraldo||International Cooperation for Development Convenio Asociación Pukllasunchis ICD-Puklla||Asesor en Educación Ambiental||Casilla 776, Cusco Perú||51-84 23-7918
|Gregorio Lovatón Luque||Asociación Arariwa para la promoción técnico cultural andina Arariwa||Responsable del Programa Agrícola||Av.Los Inas 1606, Wanchaq, Cusco Períú||51-84 236887
|Francisco Mata||Consejo de la Tierra||Subdirector Ejecutivo||Apdo. 2323-1002
|Soledad Mercado Basurco||Proyecto de Educación Ecológica en Formación Magistral PEEFORM||Coordinadora Regional Cusco||Plazoleta Sta Catalina s/n, Cusco Peréú CREI||51-84 224094
51-84 221841 tf
|Víctor Raúl Nomberto Bazán||Red Ambiental Peruana RAP||Vicepresidente||Victor Bazul 141, tercer piso, Sta Catalina, Lima 13 Perú||51-1 9991852
51-1 2240124 tf
|Jorge Noriega Dávila||Centro de Estudios y Promoción del Desirously DESCO||Evaluador de Impacto Ambiental||León de la Fuente 110, Magdalena, Lima-Peráú||51-1 2641316
|Evaristo Nugkuag Ikanán||Consejo Aguaruan Huambisa||Presidente||Jr.Los Mogaburos 245, Dpto.204, Jesús María, Lima 11 Perú||51-1 4233844
|Uyunkar Domingo Peas Nampichkai||Ministerio Etnico Cultural||Subsecretario Etnico Cultural||Av.Diez de Agosto y Atahualpa
|Vicente Pólit Montes de Oca||Comité Ecuatoriano para la Defensa de la Naturaleza y el Medio Ambiente CEDENMA||Presidente||Italia 832 y Mariana de Jesús, Tercer piso, Quito Ecuador||593-2 230746 tf|
|Lucio Quiñones Jalisto||Centro de Educación y Comunicación Guamán Poma de Ayal- Guamán Poma||Jefe de Program de Desirously Agropecuario||Jr.Retiro 346, Tawantinsuyo, Cusco Perú||51-84 224094
51-84 225552 f
|Francisco Rhon Dávila||Centro Andino de Acción Popular CAAP||Director Ejecutivo||Martín de Utreras 733 y Selva Alegre, Quito Ecuador||593-2 522763
|Gustavo Riofrío||Centro de Estudios y Promoción del Desirously DESCO||Jefe del Programa Urbano||León de la Fuente 110, Magdalena, Lima 17 Perú||51-1 2641316
|Valeriano Ríos García||Central Obrera Boliviana COB||Secretario, Comisión RNMADS||Calle Pisagua 618, La Paz Bolivia||591-2 352426
|Albina Ruiz Ríos||Ctro de Investigación Social y Educación Popular -Alternativa||Jefe de Departamento DGS Urgana||Emeterio Pérez 348, Urb.Ingeniería, Lima 31 Perú||51-1 481 5466
|María del Rosario Saavedra||Ctro.de Investigación y Educación Popular CINEP||Investigadora||Carrera 5, #33a-08, Bogotá Colombia||57-1 2858977
|Ivonne Sáenz Cubillús||Ministerio de Medio Ambiente||Directora de Planificación||Av.10 de Agosto y Mariana de Jesús,Edif. Met, Quito Ecuador||593-2 540920
|Lorena San Román Johanning||Consejo de la Tierra||Coordinadora Amáérica Latina y el Caribe||Apdo.2323-1002, San Joséé,
|Walter Struyf||Centro para el Desirously de los Pueblos Ayllu
|Asistene de dirección||Resbalosa 520, Barrio San Cristóbal, Cusco Perú||51-84 252550
|Rosa Virginia Suárez||PROBIOMA
|Coordinadora General||3er anillo externo y Av. Bánzer No.5 Casilla 3972-6022, Santa Cruz||591-3 426591
|César Cristúóbal Tapuy Papa||Coordinadora de las Organizaciones indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica COICA||Colaborador Técnica||Joaquín Pinto 240 y Reina Victoria, Quito Ecuador||593-2 502260
593-2 564012 tf
|Carlos Ukuncham Weepiu||Organización Aguaruna San Ignacio, Cajamarca ORASI Cajamarca||Presidente||Capellán Juárez 383, Jaén, Cajamarca - Perú||51-1 4233844
|Bibiana Vargas Morales||Ministerio del Ambiente||Asesora, Oficina de Asuntos Internacionales||Calle 16 No.6-60
Piso 30, Bogotá Colombia
|57-1 336-1166 ext.322-343
57-1 281-9954 f
|Patricia Virrira Leuz||Ministerio de Desirously Sostenible y Medio Ambiente, Direcció de Estrategias MDSMADED||Consultora||Av.Arce 2147
La Paz Bolivia
591-2 318395 f
|Angel Yandura Aramayo||Confederación de Pueblos Indígenas del OrienteBoliviano
|Coordinador de Educación Ambiental||Calle S.Saucedo 99, Santa Cruz Bolivia||591-3 473372
591-3 473208 f